Long-Term Measurements of Aerosols over the Global Ocean: Results from the University of Miami Ocean Aerosol Network
The University of Miami Aerosol Group (UMAG) began to develop networks of aerosol monitoring stations at various ocean sites beginning in the early 1980's. For much of the period between the early 1980's until late 1996 we had about 30 stations in continuous operation. Aerosols are collected by high-volume filter samplers. All samples are analyzed for the major aerosol species: nss-SO4=, NO3-, NH4+, sea-salt components. A large subset of the samples are also analyzed for methanesulfonate (MSA). Another large subset of samples is analyzed for mineral dust either through the analysis for Al and/or other trace elements) or by ashing the filter at 500°C (after extracting water soluble species) and weighing the ash. At some sites, in order to minimize the impact from local aerosol sources, the samplers are controlled by a wind sensor system which activates the pumps only when the wind is blowing from the open-ocean sector and when the wind velocity is greater than 1 m/s. At some stations (mostly in the North Atlantic) the filters are changed every day thereby allowing us to associated aerosol properties with specific synoptic situations. Most stations normally operated on a weekly protocol, the protocol was occasionally changed to a daily schedule - for example, during the NASA PEM-West and GLOBE field programs. Most sites collected unsectored (continuous) samples on a weekly cycle. Over the duration of the UMAG activities, we have carried out operations at 50 different sites and collected and analyzed over 30,000 individual filter samples. Some stations have continuous records that extend over more than 10 years.
In this presentation, we will summarize the data obtained at 35 stations in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean and at three Antarctic sites. The attached sheets list the stations by ocean region, the supporting program and agency, the coordinates of the stations, and the start and stop dates of the data set.
These data sets are unique. They have served as the basis of the COSAM model comparison effort over the oceans and they are being used in the IPCC model study. These two exercises have shown that there are some serious problems with the current generation of GCTM's.
================================================= University of Miami Ocean Aerosol Network D. L. Savoie and J. M. Prospero NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Heimaey, Iceland (NOAA) 63.40°N, 20.30°W 20-Jul-91; 02-Jan-98 Mace Head, Ireland (AEROCE/NSF) 53.32°N, 9.85°W 11-Aug-88; 15-Aug-94 Bermuda West & East (AEROCE/NSF) 32.27°N, 64.87°W 29-Mar-89; 01-Jan-98 Izaņa Tenerife (alt=2360 m) (AEROCE/NSF) 28.30°N, 16.50°W 25-Jul-87; 01-Jul-98 Miami, FL, RSMAS, Univ. of Miami (AEROCE/NSF) 25.75°N, 80.25°W 02-Jan-89; 07-Aug-98 Ragged Point; Barbados (AEROCE/NSF) 13.17°N, 59.43°W 05-May-84; 01-Jul-98 SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Cape Point - South Africa (DOE) 34.35°S, 18.48°°E 27-Feb-92; 21-Nov-96 Falkland Islands/Malvinas (Mount Pleasant) (DOE) 51.75°S, 60.00°W 28 Jul 87; 18 Nov 96 Marsh - King George Island (DOE) 62.18°S, 58.30°W 27-Mar-90; 25-Sep-96 Palmer Station - Antarctica (DOE) 64.77°S, 64.05°W 03-Apr-90; 18-Oct-96 NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN Cheju, Korea (NASA/PEM-West) 33.52°N, 126.48°E 10-Sep-91; 27-Oct-95 Hedo Okinawa Japan (NASA/PEM-West) 26.92°N, 128.25°E 01-Sep-91; 18-Mar-94 Midway Island (SEAREX/NSF, NASA/PEM-West) 28.22°N, 177.35°W 18-Jan-81; 02-Jan-97 Oahu Hawaii (SEAREX/NSF, NASA/PEM-West) 21.33°N, 157.70°W 21-Jan-81; 13-Jul-95 Enewetak Atoll (SEAREX/NSF) 11.33°N, 162.33°E 27-Feb-81; 10-Jun-87 Fanning Island (SEAREX/NSF) 3.92°N, 159.33°W 02-Apr-81; 14-Aug-86 SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN Nauru (Menen Point) (SEASPAN/NSF) 0.53°S, 166.95°E 16-Mar-83; 02-Oct-87 Funafuti - Tuvalu (SEASPAN/NSF) 8.50°S, 179.20°W 08-Apr-83; 31-Jul-87 American Samoa (SEAREX/NSF & NASA GLOBE) 14.25°S, 170.58°W 19-Mar-83; 03-Jan-96 Rarotonga - Cook Islands (SEASPAN/NSF & NASA GLOBE) 21.25°S, 159.75°W 23-Mar-83; 23-Jun-94 Yate - New Caledonia (SEASPAN/NSF) 22.15°S, 167.00°E 23-Aug-83; 23-Oct-85 Norfolk Island (SEASPAN/NSF and DOE) 29.08°S, 167.98°E 27-May-83; 21-Feb-97 Cape Grim - Tasmania (DOE) 40.68°S, 144.68°E 11-Jan-83; 08-Nov-96 Wellington/Baring Head - New Zealand (DOE) 41.28°S, 174.87°E 20-Oct-87; 05-Nov-96 Chatham Island - New Zealand (DOE) 43.92°S, 176.50°W 16-Sep-83; 11-Oct-96 Invercargill - New Zealand (DOE) 46.43°S, 168.35°E 22-Apr-83; 15-Nov-96 ANTARCTIC Mawson - Antarctica (DOE) 67.60°S, 62.50°E 18-Feb-87; 01-Jan-96 Palmer Station - Antarctica (DOE) 64.77°S, 64.05°W 03-Apr-90; 18-Oct-96 Marsh - King George Island (DOE) 62.18°S, 58.30°W 27-Mar-90; 25-Sep-96 INDIAN OCEAN Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (INDOEX/NSF) 4.965°N; 73.466°E; 14-Feb-98; 10-Mar-99 Reunion Island (Piton Ste Rose) (DOE) 21.17°S, 55.83°E 05-Nov-90; 16-Aug-96 Cape Point - South Africa (DOE) 34.35°S, 18.48°E 27-Feb-92; 21-Nov-96 Cape Grim - Tasmania (DOE) 40.68°S, 144.68°E 11-Jan-83; 08-Nov-96 Marion Island/Prince Edward Island (DOE) 46.92°S, 37.75°E 25-Mar-92; 01-May-96 Mawson - Antarctica (DOE) 67.60°S, 62.50°E 18-Feb-87; 01-Jan-96
Joseph M. Prospero
Professor and Director
Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmsopheric Science
University of Miami
4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, FL 33149
Dennis L. Savoie
Div. Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science